Caste in India: A Deeply Rooted Social Hierarchy

By Danish Akram Mar 27, 2024 #Caste

Caste, or “jati” in Hindi, is a complex and deeply ingrained social hierarchy that has been a defining feature of Indian society for centuries. It is a system of social stratification that divides people into different groups based on their birth, occupation, and social status. The caste system is unique to South Asia and has been a subject of much debate and controversy both within and outside the country.

In this blog post, we will explore the origins and evolution of the caste system in India, its impact on various aspects of society, and the ongoing debates surrounding it.

Caste System in South Asia

The caste system in India has its roots in ancient Hindu scriptures, particularly the Rig Veda, which dates back to around 1500 BCE. According to these texts, society was divided into four main varnas or classes – Brahmins (priests and scholars), Kshatriyas (warriors and rulers), Vaishyas (merchants and traders), and Shudras (laborers and artisans). These varnas were believed to have emerged from the body of the Hindu god Brahma, with the Brahmins being the highest and the Shudras the lowest.

Over time, this four-fold division evolved into a more complex system with thousands of castes and sub-castes, each with its own set of rules and customs. This system was further reinforced by the concept of “karma” – the belief that one’s actions in this life determine their position in the next. This meant that those born into lower castes were believed to have committed sins in their past lives and were therefore destined to remain in their current caste.

The caste system also had a strong influence on marriage and social interactions. Marriages were traditionally arranged within one’s own caste, and inter-caste marriages were strictly forbidden. People were expected to socialize and interact only with those from their own caste, leading to a highly segregated society.

Caste and Discrimination

One of the most significant consequences of the caste system is discrimination. Those belonging to lower castes have historically faced discrimination and oppression in various forms, including denial of access to education, employment opportunities, and basic human rights.

Dalits, formerly known as “untouchables,” are at the bottom of the caste hierarchy and have been subjected to extreme forms of discrimination and violence for centuries. They were considered impure and were not allowed to enter temples or even draw water from the same well as upper-caste Hindus. Despite the abolition of untouchability by the Indian Constitution in 1950, discrimination against Dalits continues to this day.

The caste system also intersects with other forms of discrimination, such as gender and religion. Women from lower castes face double discrimination – both for their gender and their caste. Similarly, religious minorities who belong to lower castes often face discrimination from both their own community and the dominant Hindu society.

Caste and Social Mobility

One of the most contentious issues surrounding the caste system is social mobility. While the Indian Constitution guarantees equal rights and opportunities for all citizens, the reality is far from it. The caste one is born into still plays a significant role in determining one’s social status and opportunities in life.

Traditionally, social mobility within the caste system was almost non-existent. However, with the rise of education and urbanization, there has been a gradual increase in inter-caste marriages and upward mobility for some individuals. However, this is still limited to a small section of society, and the majority of people remain trapped in their caste-based occupations and social status.

Caste and Politics

Caste has always been a crucial factor in Indian politics. Political parties often use caste-based identities to mobilize voters and gain power. This has led to the emergence of caste-based political parties and the practice of “vote bank politics,” where parties cater to the interests of specific castes in exchange for their votes.

Caste-based reservations, also known as affirmative action, have been a contentious issue in Indian politics. The Indian Constitution provides for reservations in education and government jobs for historically disadvantaged groups, including Dalits and other lower castes. While this policy has helped some individuals from these communities to access education and employment opportunities, it has also been criticized for perpetuating caste divisions and creating resentment among those who do not benefit from it.

Caste and Economic Inequality

The caste system has also contributed to economic inequality in India. Those belonging to lower castes are often relegated to menial and low-paying jobs, while those from higher castes hold positions of power and privilege. This has resulted in a significant wealth gap between different castes, with the upper castes holding a disproportionate share of the country’s wealth.

Moreover, the caste system has also hindered economic development in certain regions. For example, in rural areas, land ownership is often concentrated in the hands of a few dominant castes, making it difficult for those from lower castes to access land and engage in agriculture, which is the primary source of livelihood for many people.

Caste and Education

Education has long been seen as a means to break free from the shackles of the caste system. However, the reality is that caste-based discrimination exists even within educational institutions. Dalit students face discrimination from their peers and teachers, leading to high dropout rates and poor academic performance.

Moreover, the curriculum in Indian schools and universities often reinforces caste-based stereotypes and glorifies the upper castes, further perpetuating the system. Efforts have been made to introduce more inclusive and diverse curriculums, but there is still a long way to go in eradicating caste-based discrimination in education.

Caste in Contemporary India

While the caste system has been officially abolished, its influence can still be seen in various aspects of contemporary Indian society. Inter-caste marriages are still frowned upon, and caste-based discrimination continues to exist in both rural and urban areas. The media also plays a role in perpetuating caste stereotypes, with certain castes being portrayed as backward or inferior.

However, there have also been significant efforts to challenge and dismantle the caste system. Social reformers like Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, who himself was born into a Dalit family, fought against caste-based discrimination and worked towards creating a more equal society. The rise of the Dalit movement and the increased awareness and activism around caste issues have also brought the issue to the forefront.

Caste and Reservations

As mentioned earlier, reservations or affirmative action policies have been implemented in India to address historical injustices faced by lower castes. However, this policy has also been a subject of much debate and controversy. While some argue that it is necessary to uplift marginalized communities, others believe that it perpetuates caste divisions and hinders merit-based opportunities.

The reservation policy has also been criticized for not being inclusive enough, as it only benefits certain castes and leaves out other marginalized groups such as religious minorities and economically disadvantaged individuals from upper castes. Moreover, there have been instances where people have falsely claimed to belong to lower castes to gain access to reserved seats, leading to resentment among those who genuinely belong to these communities.

Caste and Hindutva

In recent years, there has been a rise in Hindu nationalism, known as “Hindutva,” which seeks to establish India as a Hindu nation. This ideology often goes hand in hand with the caste system, as it reinforces the idea of a hierarchical society with the upper castes at the top. The Hindutva movement has also been accused of promoting discrimination and violence against religious minorities and lower castes.


In conclusion, the caste system in India is a complex and deeply ingrained social hierarchy that has had a profound impact on various aspects of society. While there have been efforts to challenge and dismantle it, the caste system continues to exist in contemporary India, albeit in more subtle forms. It is essential for society to recognize and address the issues surrounding caste-based discrimination and work towards creating a more equal and inclusive society for all.

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